African Journal of Emerging Issues <p><strong>African Journal of Emerging Issues - </strong>is scholarly, open access, peer reviewed, double blind, interdisciplinary, and fully refereed journal focusing on theories, methods and applications in medicine, Engineering, Technology and Applied sciences.</p> <p>The Editorial Board is very committed to build the Journal as one of the leading African Journals of Emerging issues in the next few years to come. The Journal's reputation will be enhanced from arrangements with several organizers of international conferences in publishing selected best papers of the conference proceedings.&nbsp;</p> <div><strong>Aim</strong></div> <p align="justify"><strong>African Journal of Emerging Issues(AJOEI)</strong> is aimed to provide a highly readable and valuable addition to the literature, which will serve as an indispensable reference tool for years to come and provide a medium through which scholars and researchers all over the world publish their scholarly applied and fundamental research works including all new theoretical and experimental findings.</p> <div><strong>Scope</strong></div> <p align="justify">The coverage of the Journal publishes research articles and encourages the submission of critical review articles covering advances in recent research of such fields as well as technical notes. AJOEI will continue to provide information on the latest emerging trends and developments in this ever-expanding subject.</p> <hr align="JUSTIFY"> <div><strong>Submission</strong>:</div> <p>Authors are requested to submit their papers electronically through the<br><a href="">ONLINE SUBMISSION CENTRE </a>Or As Email attachment to <a href=""></a></p> African Journal of Emerging Issues en-US African Journal of Emerging Issues 2663-9335 EVALUATING CORPORATE LEADERSHIP IN THE UNITED STATES: A REVIEW OF ELON MUSK LEADERSHIP <p>The paper evaluates the leadership of Elon Musk. The paper analyzes whether Musk a manager or a leader or both; The characteristics and skills that have helped him drive his companies forward; What could be the consequences of taking his style too far; whether Musk is the right person for Tesla, the electric car company during the times ahead, or does the company now require more of a ‘manager’ than a ‘leader’. The paper finds that although Elon Musk is a one-of-a kind CEO, many of the leadership qualities vital to his success can be developed in managers throughout a company. Companies looking to gain a competitive edge should invest in their human capital by creating an office culture conducive to developing quality managers. An office culture based on continued learning, leadership by example, clear mission objectives, and positivity is the greenhouse that empowers employees to grow into effective managers. Companies that pay the price to cultivate a strong office culture will increasingly set themselves apart and experience substantial organic growth as employees step up to become effective managers and branch out the organization.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Leadership, Elon Musk, United States</em></p> Daniella Archwell Johnson Mason Copyright (c) 2021 African Journal of Emerging Issues 2021-04-12 2021-04-12 3 2 1 10 EFFECT OF TEACHING MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NYAMIRA COUNTY; A FOCUS OF MANGA SUB COUNTY <p><strong>Purpose of the study:</strong> The study examined the effect of teaching management strategies on the academic performance of secondary schools in Manga Sub County. The specific objectives of the study were to establish the effect of teaching management strategies, student-centered management strategy, teacher-centered management strategy and assessment strategy on academic performance. Government intervention was used as a moderating variable.</p> <p><strong>Statement of the Problem:</strong> The academic performance of secondary schools in Manga Sub County has been low compared to other secondary schools in other sub-counties. The average mean score posted by the schools is wanting. The average mean score was 5.881 in 2015, 4.187 in 2016, 4.114 in 2017, 4.0951 in 2018 and 4.6359 in 2019. The average mean score is below the average, given that the maximum point is 12.</p> <p><strong>Research methodology:</strong> The study adopted both the descriptive research design and explanatory research design. The targeted population was 33 secondary schools. The units of observation were teachers. The average number of teachers from each school, were 27, thus giving a total of 891 (27*33) teachers. The sample size of teachers 276 that were obtained by using the Yamane formula.</p> <p><strong>Research findings</strong>: Student centered management strategy, teacher centered management strategy and assessment strategy were positively and significantly associated to academic performance. The joint teaching management strategies (assessment management strategy, teacher centered management and student-centered management) were found to be significant in determining academic performance. The teaching management strategies predict 53.5% of change in the academic performance. The regression analysis exhibited a unit increase in student-centered management strategy leads to a rise in academic performance by 0.489 units when other factors are held constant. It was found a unit increase in teacher centered management will result in 0.475 units increase in academic performance. A unit increase in assessment strategy would increase the academic performance by 0.494 units while other factors are held constant. The study found that when government intervention jointly interacts with student centered management strategy, teacher centered management strategy and assessment strategy, the coefficient of determination (R squared) increased from 53.5% to 60.7%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The study concluded that student centered management strategy, teacher centered management strategy and assessment strategy were positively and significantly related to academic performance.</p> <p><strong>Recommendation:</strong> The study recommended that schools adopt joint teaching management strategies (assessment management strategy, teacher centered management and student-centered management) since they were found to predict 53.5% of academic performance change. The study also recommended schools can employ any of the three-teaching management strategies. The assessment strategy had the highest effect on academic performance and should be the most applied within the schools. There should be continuous assessment tests to reinforce students’ learning of materials in a systematic way. The schools need to have regular formative assessments, give continuous assessment tests.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Teaching management strategies, student centered management strategy, teacher centered management strategy, assessment strategy, secondary schools, Manga Sub County, Nyamira County</em></p> Charles Momanyi Copyright (c) 2021 African Journal of Emerging Issues 2021-04-13 2021-04-13 3 2 11 30 INFLUENCE OF TRAINING NEEDS ANALYSIS AND EMPLOYEE ORIENTATION ON ORGANISATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN THREE-STAR RATED HOTELS IN NAKURU COUNTY, KENYA <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The hotel industry is characterized by stiff competition and dynamic changes related to products, services and comfortability. Three-star hotels are hotels with certain level of elegance, quality, atmosphere, class in addition to offering flawless, personalized, and consistent service. The specific objectives of the paper were to evaluate the influence of training needs analysis on organisational Performance in three-star rated Hotels in Nakuru County Government, Kenya; and to assess the influence of employee orientation on organisational performance in three-star rated hotels in Nakuru County Government, Kenya.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The study adopted a cross-sectional survey design where 422 employees were targeted. The sample size for the study was 202 employees. Self-administered questionnaires were used for data collection. Data analyses entailed both descriptive and inferential statistics. The data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software and presented using tables and figures.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Training needs analysis influences organizational performance in three-star rated hotels (β=3.675, p=0.002). Likewise, employee orientation positively influences organizational performance in three-star rated hotels (β =4.125, p=0.004).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions and Recommendation:</strong> The management of three star hotels need to periodically update training needs as employees need to be more responsive to the changing environments. In essence, a balance needs to be found between practice and theory. New employee orientation is the process by which an employee is helped to adapt to the new job tasks at hand. There is need for periodical training and orientation for hotel employees so as to be up to date with dynamics in the hotel industry. Proper orientation of employees reduces the time of admission to post and contribute to the costs associated with preparing them.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>training needs analysis, employee orientation</em><em>, organisational performance, three-star rated hotels, Nakuru County</em></p> Moses Njogu Gitongu Appolonius Kembu Copyright (c) 2021 African Journal of Emerging Issues 2021-04-13 2021-04-13 3 2 31 38 INFORMATION LITERACY PRACTICES AS A TOOL FOR ACCESSING AND UTILIZING INFORMATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KENYA <p><strong>Background of the study:</strong> Information literacy practices have been recognized as essential educational goals to judge and evaluate student’s aptitude for critical thinking, decision making and problem-solving. Inculcating information literacy skills to students is not only significant to survival but also enables them to know when they need information, how to locate information and how to use information hence success in their studies. However, the state of information literacy practices in secondary schools in Kenya has not been adequately investigated to determine their degree of effectiveness.</p> <p><strong>Objective of the study</strong>: Consequently, this study aimed at investigating information literacy practices as a tool for accessing and utilizing information in secondary schools in Kenya.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The study was based on a pragmatic paradigm where both quantitative and qualitative approaches were adopted. Data was collected from a targeted population which consisted of 288 teachers, 12 school/teacher librarians and 1785 students from 12 sampled schools. Questionnaires were administered to teachers and students while an interview schedule guide was used to gather data from school/teacher librarians. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, and presented in form of tables, charts and graphs and verbatim reports. The study was important as it elicited discussions that could be used for purposes of adoption of an information literacy programme in secondary schools.</p> <p><strong>Results and findings:</strong> The findings show that some information literacy practices were available in secondary schools but not effectively practiced resulting to students proceeding to institutions of higher learning without adequate information literacy skills.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions and recommendations:</strong> The study concludes that information literacy is a prerequisite tool for accessing and using information in secondary schools. Information literacy skills enables students to conduct independent information search, efficiently retrieve information using modern technologies, critically evaluate their findings and effectively apply relevant information into their day to day situations. Therefore, the incorporation of information literacy practices into secondary schools’ curriculum would institutionalize information literacy in secondary schools.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>:<em> Accessing, Information literacy, Information Literacy Practices, Secondary Schools, Kenya.</em></p> Moses Mong’are Gekara Ben Wekalao Namande Cyprian Ratemo Makiya Copyright (c) 2021 African Journal of Emerging Issues 2021-04-23 2021-04-23 3 2 39 61 DEBT MANAGEMENT AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF LIBERIA: TIME SERIES APPROACH <p><strong>Background of the study:</strong> Liberia remains a fragile country vulnerable to external shocks, with a significant infrastructure deficit and poor living conditions for the majority of its population. While Liberia’s economic situation is on a better footing since receiving debt relief in 2010, the country continues to struggle to translate higher government revenues (driven mainly by economic rents obtained from its extractive industries) and new concessional and grant financing to broad-based and inclusive economic growth, development and poverty alleviation. The Liberian government contracted new non-concessional loans further straining the country’s weakened capacity to meet debt obligations.</p> <p><strong>Objective of the study</strong>: The paper sought to determine the effect of debt management on economic development of Liberia using a time series approach. The control variables were inflation, exchange rate and interest rate.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The study adopted time series research design approach where the years covered were from 2000-2019. The 20-year period provided a substantive duration for time series data analysis. The research adopted the use of secondary data. &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results and findings:</strong> The results portrayed a negative and significant relationship between debt management and economic development in Liberia. There was a negative and significant relationship between inflation and economic development in Liberia. Exchange rate had a negative and significant relationship with economic development in Liberia. Lastly, interest rates had a negative and significant relationship with economic development in Liberia.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions and recommendations:</strong> The study concludes that Liberia’s vulnerabilities call for a prudent fiscal policy, maintenance of the fiscal anchor on debt accumulation, and the implementation of effective measures to mobilize domestic resources. To maintain debt levels at moderate levels, it is important to continue to prioritize grants and concessional loans. A strong commitment to mobilizing domestic resources. It is also important to enhance debt management capacity by improving the information flow between different entities and strengthening the capacity of the debt management. Debt thresholds should be country and context-specific and that Liberia’s borrowing space is significantly larger than that estimated by staff. In particular, they remain more optimistic about medium-term growth and the return on investment from infrastructure projects.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Debt Management, Economic Development, Inflation Rate, Exchange Rate</em><em>, Interest Rates</em><em> &amp; Liberia.</em></p> Abdu-Nasir O. Katib Copyright (c) 2021 African Journal of Emerging Issues 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 3 2 62 76 THE ROLE OF CHURCH AMID COVID-19 PANDEMIC IN KENYA <p><strong>Purpose of the Study:</strong> To determine the role of the church amid Covid-19 pandemic in Kenya. One of God’s ways of speaking to us now is through the past; history is truly a great teacher especially for Christians, and whenever we are faced with hard questions, we can always look to history to help us find the answers. The books of the Old Testament prove this point; the Israelites were no strangers to hardships. We find many instances of wars, famines, and epidemics resulting in great loss of lives in the Old Testament, and the one thing that is similar to all of these events was that God was always in control. There are many events in history where Christians exhibited unconditional love for others. Martin Luther’s service during the Bubonic Plague of 1527 is one that every Christian can proudly recall. His letters to the churches during the plague shows that he was socially responsible and never acted in disregard for the life of his fellowmen. In fact, it was his priority to be present where he was needed no matter the circumstance.</p> <p><strong>Statement of the Problem:</strong> The emergence of Covid-19 and the lockdown and social-distancing that has come with it has affected every church across the world. No longer able to meet together, fellowship is now through online worship services, Bible studies and courses. With conferences, festivals and events cancelled, there has been a proliferation of webinars and seminars and ‘Zoom-fatigue’ for many leaders. While some parts of the Church have struggled with the loss of access to buildings, amongst evangelicals this seems to be less of an issue and contrary to some media reports, we have found that there is not a great clamor for a relaxation of rules on mass gatherings. In general, like society at large, the Church has sought to follow official advice. The emergence of Covid-19 has presented a number of ways in which community has broken down, but also opportunities for the church to step in and respond with solidarity and love. It is in the backdrop of these concerns that this study sought to determine the role of the church amid Covid-19 pandemic in Kenya.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The study was a literature based in which relevant literature from across the world were reviewed to obtain study themes.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> The findings revealed that social media and other forms of technology serve as an innovative platform for religious leaders and faith-based organizations to communicate with congregations while adhering to social distancing and restriction of movement measures.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The communication campaign are implemented in part to support faith leaders in disseminating health and safety guidance for reopening and attending houses of worship. The messaging addressed potential concerns, fears, anxieties and the dos and don’ts” surrounding safety measures and accurate information on the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> <p><strong>Recommendation:</strong> It was hence recommended that just as health officials try to explain their recommendations, so experts in the scientific study of religion need to surface religion-abetted value judgments that impact behaviors relevant to viral spread. Experts need to explain where religion is causing problems and find creative ways to communicate alternative ways of thinking.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Role, Church, Covid-19, Pandemic, Kenya.</em></p> Dorothy Medza Tsuma Copyright (c) 2021 African Journal of Emerging Issues 2021-05-09 2021-05-09 3 2 77 96 EXPERIENCES AND PERCEPTION TOWARDS THE USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA FOR CHURCH ACTIVITIES AMONG CHARISMATIC CHURCHES IN GHANA <p><strong>Purpose of the study</strong>: The study sought to examine the experiences and perception towards the use of social media for church activities by the Evangelistic Ministry, North Legon and the Maker’s House Chapel International, Kwabenya in Ghana. The adoption of social media by churches is increasing as the world is preparing towards the Fourth Industrial Revolution and currently battling with the novel COVID-19 pandemic.</p> <p><strong>Research Methodology: </strong>The mixed-method approach which involves both qualitative and quantitative techniques was deployed to undertake the research expedition. The Charismatic Evangelistic Ministry, North Legon, and The Makers House Chapel International were purposely selected as a target population for the study. A questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data from a sample size of 152 respondents. Also, 2 head pastors and their deputies, as well as 2 IT personnel, were interviewed.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong>&nbsp; The study found that church leaders and church members, in general, possessed at least some basic computer skills to enable them to access and navigate social media platforms adopted by the churches. The instrumental contribution of social media to the churches was evident as the study revealed the positively perceived usefulness of the social media platforms. This can also be attributed to the fact that the basic skills directly influence the perceived ease of use that the church members possess.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The study concluded that is very cardinal for church members to receive constant training on the use of social media platforms since updates on social media is on the rise. This move will help the church to keep pace with updates on social media use.</p> <p><strong>Recommendations</strong>: The church should provide adequate continuous training for leaders since the functional features of the social media platforms functional features keep changing. Much emphasis should be put on the interface and functional features of the churches' social media platforms that church leaders and members will require to access church programmes. There should be a provision of strong internet connectivity. Internet is the gateway to access social media platforms. Church leaders should be provided with strong and reliable internet access for them to assist church members and keep monitoring the churches' activities on social media platforms. There should be continuous education on policies regarding the use of social media platforms, enforcing members to be abided by them and emphasizing its importance to the church.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong>&nbsp; <em>Social Media, Platforms, Churches, System, Leaders, Gospel,</em> Charismatic</p> Mariam Ansaa Animante Harry Akussah Noah Darko-Adjei Copyright (c) 2021 African Journal of Emerging Issues 2021-05-10 2021-05-10 3 2 97 117