African Journal of Emerging Issues https://ajoeijournals.org/sys/index.php/ajoei <p><strong>African Journal of Emerging Issues - </strong>is scholarly, open access, peer reviewed, double blind, interdisciplinary, and fully refereed journal focusing on theories, methods and applications in medicine, Engineering, Technology and Applied sciences.</p> <p>The Editorial Board is very committed to build the Journal as one of the leading African Journals of Emerging issues in the next few years to come. The Journal's reputation will be enhanced from arrangements with several organizers of international conferences in publishing selected best papers of the conference proceedings.&nbsp;</p> <div><strong>Aim</strong></div> <p align="justify"><strong>African Journal of Emerging Issues(AJOEI)</strong> is aimed to provide a highly readable and valuable addition to the literature, which will serve as an indispensable reference tool for years to come and provide a medium through which scholars and researchers all over the world publish their scholarly applied and fundamental research works including all new theoretical and experimental findings.</p> <div><strong>Scope</strong></div> <p align="justify">The coverage of the Journal publishes research articles and encourages the submission of critical review articles covering advances in recent research of such fields as well as technical notes. AJOEI will continue to provide information on the latest emerging trends and developments in this ever-expanding subject.</p> <hr align="JUSTIFY"> <div><strong>Submission</strong>:</div> <p>Authors are requested to submit their papers electronically through the<br><a href="https://ajoeijournals.org/submission">ONLINE SUBMISSION CENTRE </a>Or As Email attachment to <a href="mailto:journals@ajoeijournals.org">journals@ajoeijournals.org</a></p> en-US chief@ajoeijournals.org (Principal Editor) Fri, 04 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.0 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 EFFECT OF CURRENCY DEVALUATION ON PERFORMANCE OF BANKING SECTOR IN CROATIA https://ajoeijournals.org/sys/index.php/ajoei/article/view/181 <p><strong>Purpose of the study</strong>: The study sought to examine the effect of currency devaluation on performance of banking sector in Croatia.</p> <p><strong>Research Methodology</strong>: The study relied upon the findings of the previous studies to make inferences. The study was conducted out thoroughly by examining the previous studies rather than physical investigations.</p> <p><strong>Findings</strong>: Currency devaluation reduces the performance of the local business while increasing the performance of the external businesses. Currency devaluation increases the prices of imports while reducing the market prices of exports. The study noted that currency devaluation weakens the confidence of the investors, thus reducing bank opportunities to obtain resources from those investors. The exports are relatively cheaper to foreign customers and on the other hand, imports are more expensive. When exports are high and the imports are low it makes the aggregate demand increase by the assumption that demand is relatively elastic, in normal situations higher aggregate demand is probably to cause higher real GDP and inflation. The increase of the aggregate demand can increase demand-pull inflation.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: The study concluded there is a statistically significant and negative relationship between currency devaluation and performance. The currency devaluation makes the imports very expensive and exports cheap and this lowers the assurance of the investors. Investors are not willing to invest in countries that are having lower returns on exports. Devaluation decreases the hope of people in terms of deposits in the domestic currency.</p> <p><strong>Recommendations</strong>: The study recommended that currency devaluation needs to be avoided by the countries. Counties need to look for alternative strategies that could increase the level of exports rather than currency devaluation. The currency devaluation was found to have a negative effect on the entire economy. Investors are not willing to go to countries with low returns of the exports and this will drive away investors. It is also recommended that if the government wants to devalue the currency to achieve the monetary policy, it should also raise short-term interest rate under their control. The motive to raise the short-term interest is to make the domestic assets more attractive and higher interest rates should strengthen the currency.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Currency devaluation, performance, banking sector, Croatia</em></p> Prebisch Shaw Risager , Ahmedov Gylfason Copyright (c) 2021 African Journal of Emerging Issues https://ajoeijournals.org/sys/index.php/ajoei/article/view/181 Sat, 05 Jun 2021 11:38:37 +0000 MODERATING EFFECT OF GOVERNANCE PRINCIPLE APPLICATION ON THE MEDIATION EFFECT OF TECHNOLOGICAL CAPABILITY https://ajoeijournals.org/sys/index.php/ajoei/article/view/179 <p><strong>Background of the Study:</strong> Sustainability of water service is a key desire for government, non-government and communities at large since a sustained project ensures continuous deliverance of benefits to the target beneficiaries for a long time. Planning for sustainable activities calls for engagements of stakeholders and the target beneficiaries to create a better understanding and pave way for implementation of formulated activities. The presence and functionality of water user committees, training in the Water Service Providers (WSPS) and the level of external support were the institutional factors which impacted on sustainability.</p> <p><strong>Objective of the Study:</strong> The current paper sought to establish the moderating effect of governance principle application on the mediation effect of technological capability on the relationship between management practices and service sustainability of water companies in Kenya.</p> <p><strong>Theoretical Orientation:</strong> This paper was anchored on the Sustainability theory and supported by the theory of constraints, general systems theory and Mc Gregor’s Theory X and Y.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This paper adopted positivism philosophy. This study employed a cross-sectional survey design. The pilot test was carried out on 8 respondents from the 4 categories of the WSPs. The Quantitative data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 22).</p> <p><strong>Results and Findings:</strong> The study revealed that there was a statistically significant moderating effect governance principle application on the mediation effect of technological capability on the relationship between management practices and service sustainability. The joint effect of governance principle application and technological capability was higher and significant compared to the individual effect of individual variables therefore the hypothesis that there is no significant moderating effect of Governance principle application on the mediation effect of technological capability on the relationship between management practices and service sustainability was rejected and the alternative hypothesis supported. The findings also revealed that when the interaction term was introduced, indicated a significant relationship, thus Governance principle application was found to moderate the relationship between technological capability and service sustainability of water companies in Kenya (moderated mediation).&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study concluded that, the introduction of Governance principle application had a buffering moderating effect on the relationship between technological capability on the relationship between management practices and service sustainability. The study concluded that that there is need for governments and water sector stakeholders to move beyond infrastructure development to ensuring water service providers receive capacity building with a focus on governance, technical capacity and equipping with information. The study also concluded that training community members on financial management is critical to guaranteed transparency and accountability of the revenue and expenses. The adoption of sustainability theory enables project managers and the community to maintain and sustain the project or programme outcomes through utilization of their own resources and assets to enjoy the benefits of a project without compromising enjoyment of such benefits to the future generation.</p> <p><strong>Recommendations:</strong> The study recommends that the management of water services should have an integrated approach that not only addresses physical investments but also improves internal technological skills and provides a governance framework that enhances stakeholder voice. Further, the study recommends that the management of water companies should make informed decisions while planning for their medium- and long-term strategies for water projects that will enable them ensure efficient supply water and sanitation to various regions and hence attain project sustainability. Finally, the study recommends that WSPs should adopt user involvement, executive management support, proper planning and mobilization of resources, realistic expectations, competent staff, clear vision and objectives, availability of resources, competence in technology, managing scope, managing issues that arise from project teams, monitoring and evaluating project progress and risk management.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Management Practices,</em> <em>Governance Principle Application</em>, <em>Technological Capability &amp;Sustainability. </em></p> Patrick Joseph Owuori, Michael Ngala, Simon Obwatho Copyright (c) 2021 African Journal of Emerging Issues https://ajoeijournals.org/sys/index.php/ajoei/article/view/179 Fri, 04 Jun 2021 07:23:51 +0000 SECURITY MANAGEMENT AND PRIVATE SECURITY COMPANIES IN KENYA: A CASE STUDY OF KAMUKUNJI IN NAIROBI CITY COUNTY, KENYA https://ajoeijournals.org/sys/index.php/ajoei/article/view/180 <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The contemporary world is experiencing economic ‘melt down’ and globalization has exported crime and other vices leading to an upsurge in crime that challenges security agents. This trend has led to a strain on state security agencies, compromising their performance and creating gaps. In Kenya, since the KDF entered Somalia in pursuit of Al Shabaab insurgents, the attacks by the insurgents to Kenyan soft targets have been enormous. The pressure on security agents coupled with their low number has led to state fragility within the borders which necessitates presence of Private Security Companies (PSCs) to bridge the gap. This study sought to investigate the effects of PSCs on security management in Nairobi. The general objective of this study was to establish the effects of PSCs in Security Management in Nairobi. The specific objectives were to; =establish how capacity of PSCs affects security management, to investigate how vulnerabilities of PSCs affect security management and examine how organizational structure of PSCs affects security management. This study focused on Kamukunji Sub County of Nairobi City County which harbours Eastleigh, a very fast growing business hub in Nairobi suburbs that has attracted traders and other opportunists.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This study employed both the Integrated Threat Theory and the New Public Management Theory model. Integrated Threat Theory fundamentally highlights conditions that lead to perceptions of threat, which in turn affect attitudes and behaviour. This theory however only creates conditions for the response but has a gap in how this can be replicated in a number of areas or regions. To address the gap, the study focused on New Public Management Theory model that is designed to decentralize the mode of state operations. This can be achieved through devolving security management activities to PSCs. This study used a descriptive survey research design. To collect the relevant data for the study, the researcher used a structured questionnaire that was administered purposively. This was entered into a program and developed into a database from where it was analysed by use of measures of central tendency and central variability.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to discuss the findings of the study. The sample population that constituted 84 respondents comprised 65.5% male respondents and 34.5% female respondents. From the findings, there was variation of 37.4% on Security management in Nairobi that could be attributed to the influence of capacity, vulnerability and organization structure of PSCs.</p> <p><strong>Recommendations:</strong> It is recommended that, the Private Security Regulator sets minimum academic entry level for PSCs, set and enforce a standardized training curriculum for all PSCs including how to handle firearms, identify the minimum equipment that is required for running a PSC and the required competency in handling the equipment and standardize the remuneration packages for the PSC personnel. The National Intelligence Services (NIS) should cultivate a structured engagement of PSCs to positively vet and build their capacity to enhance counter terrorism strategies. PSCs should be embedded in the ‘Nyumba Kumi’ initiative to assist the local administration in the fight against crime.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Key Words:</strong><em> Private Security Companies, International Governmental Organization, National Security Intelligence, Human Intelligence, Al Shabaab, ‘Soja’, ‘Nyumba Kumi’</em></p> Zachariah M. Burudi, Wilson Muna Copyright (c) 2021 African Journal of Emerging Issues https://ajoeijournals.org/sys/index.php/ajoei/article/view/180 Fri, 04 Jun 2021 09:36:08 +0000 MODERATED MEDIATION BETWEEN LEADERSHIP STYLE AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE: THE ROLE OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE https://ajoeijournals.org/sys/index.php/ajoei/article/view/182 <p>The role of leader is vital for the survival and progress of an organization. Leadership helps in developing the organization’s objectives, values and vision.&nbsp;Leaders involve influencing personnel to persuade them achieve the organizational objectives.&nbsp;Top quality leadership is essential to achieve the mission and vision along with coping with the changes occurring in the external environment. Leadership style equally plays an important role in shaping the behaviour and attitude of the members of an organization. In recent years, the study of leadership has drawn more attention due to its role in the failure or success of an organization. In current time, many companies are facing problems related to unethical practices, high labor turnover, poor financial performance, etc. This may be due to the lack of effective leadership. Corporate governance is also increasingly becoming important in organization as an approach of improving performance. Due to widespread corporate scandals and failures around the world, there has been a renewed interest in the effect of corporate governance on firm performance. Some studies have argued for a positive relationship while others argued that there is a negative relationship between corporate governance and organizational performance. The main aim of many companies is to accomplish its stated objectives; hence, there is a need of effective leaders for coordinating and motivating the employees. Over the years, scholars and researchers have not been unanimous on the most appropriate style of leadership in organization and these has led to the formulation of several theories that could bring about organizational efficiency and effectiveness. Still yet, some organizations do not take account of the leadership style adopted by their managers. It is against this backdrop that this paper sought to fill the knowledge gap by establishing the relationship between leadership style, corporate governance and organizational performance. The study results indicated a significant positive relationship between board composition, board diversity as well as directors’ compensation and financial performance measured as Return on Assets (ROA) and Return on Equity (ROE). The findings on integrated model, which incorporated the moderating effect of board diversity and directors’ compensation individually and jointly, suggest that the presence of board diversity (women) and directors’ compensation individually had significant positive influence on the relationship between board composition and financial performance when measured as ROE. The findings had practical implications on the users of financial statements such as regulatory bodies, management of the companies, financial analysts, investors and researchers. The study recommended that organizations should ensure that they adopt corporate governance practices to enhance the organizational performance such as, board composition, board size, independence of chief executive officer (CEO), audit committee, transparency and accountability, Shareholders communication policy and continuous disclosure. The study also recommended that organizations should strive towards strategizing effective ways of incorporating CG issues into their leadership style thereby enhancing the integrity of the firm to the public and ultimately improving financial performance.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Leadership style,</em> <em>Corporate Governance</em>, <em>Organizational Performance, Board Diversity. </em></p> Patrick Joseph Owuori Copyright (c) 2021 African Journal of Emerging Issues https://ajoeijournals.org/sys/index.php/ajoei/article/view/182 Thu, 10 Jun 2021 07:37:48 +0000 DETERMINANTS OF PERSONAL FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT DECISIONS: A COMPARISON OF SELF-EMPLOYED GENERATION X AND GENERATION Y IN EMBAKASI EAST CONSTITUENCY OF NAIROBI, KENYA https://ajoeijournals.org/sys/index.php/ajoei/article/view/183 <p>Personal financial management (PFM) decisions greatly influence living standards, the performance of organizations, and by extension, the economy. Since every generation is unique, Generation X and Y more often than not demonstrate different decisions on PFM. The general objective of the study was to investigate and compare the determinants of personal financial management decisions among the self-employed Generations X and Y in Embakasi East constituency of Nairobi, Kenya as guided by four independent variables; financial knowledge, demographic factors which are age, education level, marital status and income level; financial attitude and financial locus of control (LOC). Out of a target population of 5,440 individuals, a sample of 372 was selected whereby 304 individuals were Generation X and 68 were Generation Y. The response rate was 82.26%. The study findings indicated that in general, financial knowledge, financial attitude, financial locus of control, and level of income were positively and significantly associated with PFM decisions of self-employed Generation X and Y in Embakasi East constituency while gender and marital status had no significant influence. The comparative results showed that financial knowledge has a significant influence on PFM decisions for both Generation X and Y. On the other hand, financial LOC did not have a significant effect on PFM decisions for both generations. Whereas financial attitude significantly influences PFM decisions of Generation X, it did not have a significant effect on PFM decisions for Generation Y. The study concluded that most Generation X and Y business owners in Embakasi East are low income earners but are knowledgeable about the basic financial concepts. In addition, most self-employed Generation X and Y are risk averse. The study recommended that government agencies, micro finance institutions and banks should increase specialized financial education programs for each generation with a focus on Generation Y in order to not only create, but also increase awareness and encourage risk diversification.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Financial Management Decisions, Generation X &amp; Generation Y</em></p> Audrey Adhiambo Onyango Copyright (c) 2021 African Journal of Emerging Issues https://ajoeijournals.org/sys/index.php/ajoei/article/view/183 Tue, 15 Jun 2021 08:54:52 +0000