• Caroline. M. K. Kahingo Kenyatta University
  • Anne. W Muchemi Kenyatta University


Purpose: The dynamism experienced in the business environment has led to unprecedented levels of unpredictability, volatility and intense competition among firms. The strategies that were employed previously in stable environments have become unviable in this dynamism. This has placed a strain on firms to implement strategies that enable them to survive and achieve superior performance. Strategic flexibility has been proposed as a strategic option for firms operating in this ever turbulent circumstances. It enables firms to adapt and adjust as a response such changes. However, a number of challenges confront both scholars and practicing managers regarding this concept. One of the most outstanding is that there is no clear identification of the dimensions and indicators for its measurement.

Methodology: Consequently, this study undertook a systematic review of extant theoretical and empirical literature on strategic flexibility, top management team (TMT) cognitive capability, environmental dynamism and firm performance. The relevant theories and constructs to the study were examined, operational indicators identified and both theoretical and conceptual gaps highlighted.

Conclusion: This paper makes theoretical contributions in strategic management because the inclusion of the moderating variable, environmental dynamism and the mediating variable, TMT cognitive capability, has led to the development of a proposed theoretical model that is expected to guide future studies examining the effect of strategic flexibility on firm performance.

Recommendation: This paper recommends that an empirical study should be conducted using the proposed theoretical model in order to establish the relationship between the variables in order to contribute to the consolidation of knowledge on the construct of strategic flexibility.

Key words: Environmental Dynamism, Firm Performance, Strategic Flexibility, TMT Cognitive Capability, Resource Flexibility, Strategic Action Flexibility

Author Biographies

Caroline. M. K. Kahingo, Kenyatta University

Ph.D Candidate, School of Business, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya

Anne. W Muchemi, Kenyatta University

Lecturer, School of Business, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya


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How to Cite
Kahingo, C. M. K., & Muchemi, A. W. (2020). STRATEGIC FLEXIBILITY, TMT COGNITIVE CAPABILITY AND FIRM PERFORMANCE: A REVIEW OF LITERATURE. African Journal of Emerging Issues, 2(11), 53 - 78. Retrieved from