• Deniz Emre Istanbul University
  • Mehmet Mustafa Istanbul University


Multiculturalism refers to acceptance that multiple cultures exist and promotion of these cultures in society. Multiculturalism can occur when different cultures are combined, for example, French English or when people immigrate into an area that has a different culture from theirs. Multiculturalism and interculturalism include acceptance of various cultures within society through advocating for equal respect, creating and enacting policy that promotes cultural diversity, and policies that ensure the needs of different ethnic and religious groups are met. As cultural diversity increases, the question on the best way of promoting intercultural communication and harmony is asked more and more often. One possible answer may be multicultural and intercultural literature. Literature has been a way of opening up the world to those who wish to learn and grow. Therefore, intercultural and multicultural literature can be useful in educating and improving understanding of different cultures. These stories include characters from different cultures and show how people from different cultures can interact peacefully and coexist in the same space. Americanah by Chimamanda Adichie and The Three Daughters of Eve by Elif Shafak include a variety of cultures and show how the different cultures differ while also showing how people from different ethnic backgrounds can interact and form strong bonds. Adichie uses the protagonist in the book, Ifemelu, to show the cultural diversity in America and expounds upon the experience of living in a country that includes multiple races and cultures. Ifemelu takes the reader through the dynamics of the different races, cultures and ethnicities and how they interact with one another. Similarly, Shafak uses Peri, the protagonist to portray Turkey’s cultural diversity and the issues that arise as a result of this diversity. The books also touch on the issues that arise when different cultures come together, such as discrimination and pressure to assimilate. 

Keywords: Multiculturalism, Interculturalism, Literature, Turkey, America

Author Biographies

Deniz Emre, Istanbul University

Istanbul University

Mehmet Mustafa, Istanbul University

Istanbul University


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Bilal, Hafiz Ahmad. “Shafak’s Treatment of Divinity and Religion in Three Daughters of Eve: A Critical Perspective.” Psychology and Education Journal 58.4 (2021): 136-144.

Firdaus, Firdaus, Dian Kurnia Anggreta, and Faishal Yasin. “Internalizing multiculturalism values through education: Anticipatory strategies for multicultural problems and intolerance in Indonesia.” Jurnal Antropologi: Isu-Isu Sosial Budaya 22.1 (2020): 131-141

Kaya, Ayhan, Max-Valentin Robert, and Ayşe Tecmen. “Populism in Turkey and France: nativism, multiculturalism and Euroskepticism.” Turkish Studies 21.3 (2020): 361-391.

Landry, Ava. “Black is black is black?: African immigrant acculturation in Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Americanah and Yaa Gyasi’s Homegoing.” MELUS: Multi-Ethnic Literature of the United States 43.4 (2018): 127-147.

McMann, Mindi. “You’re black”: Transnational perceptions of race in Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Americanah and Andrea Levy’s Small Island.” Critique: Studies in Contemporary Fiction 59.2 (2018): 200-212.

Shafak, Elif. Three Daughters of Eve. Bloomsbury Publishing USA, 2017.

Thobani, Sunera. “Neoliberal multiculturalism and western exceptionalism: The cultural politics of the West.” Fudan Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences 11.2 (2018): 161-174.
How to Cite
Emre, D., & Mustafa, M. (2021). MULTICULTURALISM AND INTERCULTURALISM IN TURKISH AND AMERICAN LITERATURE. African Journal of Emerging Issues, 3(8), 11 - 26. Retrieved from