• Thuranira Mark Linturi Kenyatta University
  • Wilson Muna Kenyatta University


Purpose: Several studies on police reforms have established that there is ineffectiveness in terms of performance among police officers. Ineffectiveness in police performance has been a major problem among many policing organizations the world over. This study sought to establish the effects of the command restructuring on the performance of police officers.

Methodology: A descriptive research design was adopted. Qualitative and quantitative techniques of data analysis were used.

Findings: The study established that command structure has a positive and significant relationship with the performance of police officers. This was supported by a correlation value of .317, p<.01. The results imply that a single unit change in the command structure results in .317 increases in the performance of police officers.

Conclusions and Recommendation: The study concluded that despite the reorganization of the National Police Service command structure ineffectiveness in performance by police officers still exist. It, therefore, recommended amendment of the existing laws to allow further restructuring of National Police Service command structure.

Key words: Command Restructuring, Performance, Police Officers

Author Biographies

Thuranira Mark Linturi, Kenyatta University

Department of Public Policy and Administration, Kenyatta University

Wilson Muna, Kenyatta University

Department of Public Policy and Administration, Kenyatta University


Amnesty International (2013). Police Reforms in Kenya; “a drop in the ocean” Amnesty International Publications, London, United Kingdom.

Anam, A. (2019, March 24). Company Reporting Structure. Bizfluent. Retrieved January 8, 2020, from

Asghari, M. (2016, May 31). National security and Economic Growth. Iran. Econ.Rev.21 (4) 905-924.

Bridges, M. (2019, February 22). Lewin 3-Step Change Model: A Simple Yet Effective Framework to Manage Change. Flevyblog. Retrieved January 18, 2020, from

Capponi, J. (2017, September 20). The Importance of a Good Organizational Structure to Growth and Profitability. Retrieved January 18, 2020, from

Charles, M. & Hezel, G. (2014): Effects of Training on Performance of National Police Service. Strategic Journal of Business and Change Management, vol.1 (3), pp37-58.

Chris, D. & Kisirinya. S (2009) Promotion as a Motivational Factor towards Employees’ Performance: A Case Study of Uganda Police Force (UPF) (1995-2005) MA Makerere University unpublished.

Chtalu, K (2014). The Challenges Related to Police Reforms in Kenya: A Survey of Nairobi County, Kenya. Unpublished, Kenyatta University, Nairobi.

Crowson. (2019): Police Officer Advancement Opportunities. Retrieved October 20, 2020 from

Deressa, A. T. & Zeru, G. (2019). Work motivation and its effects on organizational performance: the case of nurses in Hawassa public and private hospitals: Mixed method study approach. BMC Research Notes, 12(1), 1-6.

Enga E. (2017). The Impact of Training and Development on Organisational Performance. Case Study: National Financial Credit Bank Kumba. Centria University of applied sciences. Business management thesis, unpublished.

Galbraith, M. (2018) Don’t Just Tell Employees Organisational Changes Are Coming-Explain Why: Change Management. October 05, 2018, Harvard review. Retrieved October 24, 2020 from

Half, R. (2020). 7 Ways to Support Employee Career Advancement. Retrieved October 20, 2020

Hatane, S. E. (2015). Employee Satisfaction and Performance as Intervening Variables of Learning Organization on Financial Performance. Procedia - Social and Behavioural Sciences, 211, 619–628.

Johan, van G., & Wilfred, I. U. (2012). The role of impact evaluation on service delivery within the public sector organizations. African Journal of Business Management, 6(39), 10458–10463.

Kabia, J. (2013). An Investigation of Factors Influencing Police Officers’ Perception of Police Reforms: A Case of Kenya Police Service, Nairobi Area. Unpublished, University of Nairobi, Nairobi.

Keay. R (2018). Talking About Customer Experience Journey Mapping and Beyond: Four reasons why valuing employees is as important as valuing your clients. retrieved on 20 October, 2020.

Kekić, D., Miladinović, S., &Milenković, M. (2016). The Impact of Organizational Changes on Performance and Behaviour of Police Officers. Presented at The International Scientific Conference “Archibald Reiss Days”, Volume: II, Belgrade, Serbia.

Kettner, G. (2017, August 9). 7 Risks of Poorly Implemented Performance Management Programs. GovLoop. Retrieved October 18, 2020 from

Kiggundu (2010): Organizational Structures and Employee Performance; A Case of the Supreme Audit Institution (SAI) of Uganda, Swiss management center-Transknowinogy Campus.

Kivoi, D. L. (2013). The Achilles’ heel of Police Reforms in Kenya. Social Sciences, 2(6), 189.

Krekel, C. (March 2019) Employee Wellbeing, Productivity, and Firm Performance. Saïd Business School WP 2019-04.

Longo, R. (2011). Is Lewin’s change management model still valid? Retrieved December 8, 2019, from

Meyer, R. M. (2008). Span of management: concept analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 63(1), 104–112.

Mutua, C. P. (2014). The Effectiveness of Kenya Police Reforms on Service Delivery in Nairobi County, Kenya. Unpublished, Kenyatta University, Nairobi.

Nagaraju. B & Pooja. J (2017). Impact of Salary on Employee Performance Empirical Evidence from Public and Private Sector Banks of Karnataka. International Journal of Marketing and Human Resource Management, 8(4), 43-51.

Nassazi A. (2013): Effects of Training on Employee Performance, Evidence from Uganda, Business Economics, and Tourism. Vaasan Ammattikorkeakoulu University of Applied Sciences. Unpublished.

National Police Service (2018) Policy Framework and Strategy for Reorganization. National Police Service Act, 2011.

Notanubun, Z., Ririhena, R. L., & Batlolona, J. R. (2019). The effect of organization restructuring on organization performance viewed from employee performance and leadership effectiveness at Maluku provincial education office. Journal of Education and Learning (Edu Learn), 13(1), 118-124.

Ojienda, Seth H. O. (2013). Reform of the Kenya police force: An assessment of the efficacy of the legal framework in delivering the much-needed police reform. Nairobi: University of Nairobi.

Schilling, M. A., & Steensma, H. K. (2001). The Use of Modular Organizational Forms: An Industry-Level Analysis. Academy of Management Journal, 44(6), 1149–1168.

Shane, J. M. (2010a). Organizational stressors and police performance. Journal of Criminal Justice, 38(4), 807–818.

Sibidi, N. (2014). Relationship between Organizational Structure and Performance: A Case of the National Railways of Zimbabwe. IRACST–International Journal of Commerce, Business and Management (IJCBM), Vol. 3(No.2,).

Singh, P., & Twalo, T. (2014). Effects of Poorly Implemented Performance Management Systems on the Job Behaviour and Performance of Employees. International Business & Economics Research Journal (IBER), 14(1), 79-94.

Skudiene, V., & Auruskeviciene, V. (2012). The contribution of corporate social responsibility to internal employee motivation. Baltic Journal of Management, 7(1), 49-67.

Sparrow, M, K. (2015). Measuring Performance in a Modern Police Organization. New Perspectives in Policing Bulletin. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice.

Sparrow, M. K. (1993). Information Systems and the Development of Policing. U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs National Institute of Justice March 1993 No. 16 A Publication of the National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, and the Program in Criminal Justice Policy and Management, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, 6, 1–11.

Tyler, T. R. (2006). Restorative Justice and Procedural Justice: Dealing with Rule Breaking. Journal of Social Issues, 62(2), 307–326.

Varghese, J. (2010). Police Structure: A Comparative Study of Policing Models. SSRN Electronic Journal, 5 (4), pp 2319-9202. Retrieved January 22, 2020, from

Wahjono S. I. & Marina. A (2016). The Impact of Performance Appraisal on Job Satisfaction with Quality of Supervisor-Employee as a Moderating variable at State-Owned Company. International Journal of Advanced Scientific Research & Development, Vol. 03(04), Ver. III, Oct-Dec’ 2016, pp. 224 – 237.

Wanjala, M., & Kimutai, G. (2015). Influence of performance appraisal on employee performance in commercial banks in Trans Nzoia County–Kenya.

Warr, P., & Nielsen, K. (2017, October 24). Wellbeing and Work Performance. Institute of Work Psychology, University of Sheffield. Retrieved October 20, 2020 from

Zakaria, et al (2014). The role of wellbeing on performance in services sector. International Conference on Accounting Studies 2014, ICAS 2014, 18-19 August 2014, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Zbirenko, A., & Andersson, J. (2014). Effect of organizational structure, leadership, and communication on efficiency and productivity: A qualitative study of a public health-care organization (Dissertation). Retrieved January 8 2020 from>.

How to Cite
Linturi, T. M., & Muna, W. (2021). COMMAND RESTRUCTURING AND PERFORMANCE AMONG POLICE OFFICERS IN LAMU COUNTY, KENYA. African Journal of Emerging Issues, 3(1), 129-148. Retrieved from