SECURITY MANAGEMENT AND PRIVATE SECURITY COMPANIES IN KENYA: A CASE STUDY OF KAMUKUNJI IN NAIROBI CITY COUNTY, KENYA
Purpose: The contemporary world is experiencing economic ‘melt down’ and globalization has exported crime and other vices leading to an upsurge in crime that challenges security agents. This trend has led to a strain on state security agencies, compromising their performance and creating gaps. In Kenya, since the KDF entered Somalia in pursuit of Al Shabaab insurgents, the attacks by the insurgents to Kenyan soft targets have been enormous. The pressure on security agents coupled with their low number has led to state fragility within the borders which necessitates presence of Private Security Companies (PSCs) to bridge the gap. This study sought to investigate the effects of PSCs on security management in Nairobi. The general objective of this study was to establish the effects of PSCs in Security Management in Nairobi. The specific objectives were to; =establish how capacity of PSCs affects security management, to investigate how vulnerabilities of PSCs affect security management and examine how organizational structure of PSCs affects security management. This study focused on Kamukunji Sub County of Nairobi City County which harbours Eastleigh, a very fast growing business hub in Nairobi suburbs that has attracted traders and other opportunists.
Methodology: This study employed both the Integrated Threat Theory and the New Public Management Theory model. Integrated Threat Theory fundamentally highlights conditions that lead to perceptions of threat, which in turn affect attitudes and behaviour. This theory however only creates conditions for the response but has a gap in how this can be replicated in a number of areas or regions. To address the gap, the study focused on New Public Management Theory model that is designed to decentralize the mode of state operations. This can be achieved through devolving security management activities to PSCs. This study used a descriptive survey research design. To collect the relevant data for the study, the researcher used a structured questionnaire that was administered purposively. This was entered into a program and developed into a database from where it was analysed by use of measures of central tendency and central variability.
Results: Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to discuss the findings of the study. The sample population that constituted 84 respondents comprised 65.5% male respondents and 34.5% female respondents. From the findings, there was variation of 37.4% on Security management in Nairobi that could be attributed to the influence of capacity, vulnerability and organization structure of PSCs.
Recommendations: It is recommended that, the Private Security Regulator sets minimum academic entry level for PSCs, set and enforce a standardized training curriculum for all PSCs including how to handle firearms, identify the minimum equipment that is required for running a PSC and the required competency in handling the equipment and standardize the remuneration packages for the PSC personnel. The National Intelligence Services (NIS) should cultivate a structured engagement of PSCs to positively vet and build their capacity to enhance counter terrorism strategies. PSCs should be embedded in the ‘Nyumba Kumi’ initiative to assist the local administration in the fight against crime.
Key Words: Private Security Companies, International Governmental Organization, National Security Intelligence, Human Intelligence, Al Shabaab, ‘Soja’, ‘Nyumba Kumi’
Avant, D. (2005). The Market for force: The Consequences of privatizing security, Cambridge.
Bayart J F, Ellis S and Hibou B (1999). The Criminalisation of the State in Africa. Oxford: James Curry.
Brenes E.R and Mena M, (2008). Key success factors for strategy implementation in Latin America. Journal of business research.
Booth K and N J Wheeler (2008). The Security Dilemma: Fear, Cooperation and Trust in World Politics, Basingstoke: Palgrave.
Commonwealth Secretariat (1986). ‘Decentralization for development management, development programme supplement to a selected annotated bibliography. Human Resource Development Group.
Drazin R and Howard P, (1984). Strategy implementation: A technique for organizational design. Columbia Journal of World Business.
Feurer R and Chaharbaghi K, (1995). “Strategy development: past, present and future”, Management decision, 33(6), 11-12.
Forman J and Argenti P, 2005. "How corporate communication influences strategy implementation, reputation and the corporate brand: An exploratory qualitative study". Corporate reputations review.
Gounev, P (2006). Bulgaria’s private security industry. In A Bryden and M Caparini (eds). Private actors and security governance. Geneva: Lit and Dcaf Verlag.
Gumedze S. (ed.), (2008). 'The Private security sector in Africa country series', Institute for Security Studies.
Heide M, Gronhaug K and Johannessen S, (2002). Exploring barriers to the successful implementation of a formulated strategy. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 18(2), 217-231.
Holmqvist C, (2005). Private Security Companies: The Case for regulation, SIPRI Policy Paper No. 9.
Lisa McQuerrey, (2011). Challenges of Compensation Management, Glass Page Books.
Litavski, J. (2012). Izazovi privatnog sektora bezbednosti. Beograd: Centar za evroatlanske studije.
Lyons W, (2002). Partnerships, information and public safety: Community policing in a time of terror. Policing: An international journal of police strategies and management, 25(3), pp. 530-542.
Marshall A. (1920), Principles of economics, London: Macmillan.
McLaughlin K, Osborne and Ferlie E (2000). New Public Management: Current trends and future prospects. Routledge. Tylor and Francis Group.
Meike de Goede (2008). Private and Public Security in Post-War Democratic Republic of Congo, Pretoria Institute for Security Studies.
Miller S, Wilson D and Hickson D, 2004. Beyond planning: strategies for successfully implementing strategic decisions. Long Range Planning.
Minogue, M (2001). ‘Should flawed models of public management be exported? Issues and practices, in McCourt, W and Minogue, M (eds), The Internationalization of Public Management: Reinventing the Third World State. Edward Eldgar. Cheltenham.
Morgenthau H J (1965). Politics among Nations: The Struggle for power and peace, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Third edition.
Murray J, (2005). Policing Terrorism: A Threat to community policing or just a shift in priorities? Police practice and research.
Mutahi N.,and Musambayi K. (2014). From Monopoly to Oligopoly of violence: Exploration of a four-point hypothesis regarding organized and organic Militia in Kenya, UNDP ISBN 978-9966-078-445.
OECD (1995). Governance in transition: Public management reforms in OECD Countries, OECD, CEDEX. Polidano, C (199) ‘The new public management in developing countries’. IDPM Public Policy and Management, Working Paper no. 13. University of Manchester.
Oliver, D and Drewry, G (1996). Public service reforms: Issues of accountability and public law. Pinter. Biddles Limited. Guildford and King’s Lynn.
Lock, P. (2019). “The African military downsizing and the growth of security Industry”.
Ravallion, M, (2009). The Developing World's bulging (but vulnerable) middle class, Policy Research Working Paper Series 4816, the World Bank.
Redmond, Brian (2009). Lesson & Commentary: Intergroup theories: How do the people around me influence me? Work Attitudes and Motivation. The Pennsylvania State University World Campus.
Riek B M, Mania E W and Gaertner S L (2006). Intergroup threat and out-group attitudes: A meta-analytic review. Personality and social psychology review, 10(4), 336-353.
Sakira, M (2004). Challenges faced by Private Security Organizations after liberalization of police duties in Uganda 1997 – 2003, MA dissertation, Makerere University.
Schedller K. and Proeller, I (2002). ‘The new public management. A perspective from mainland Europe’, pp.163180 in MacLaughlin, K, Osborne, S.P and Ferlie (eds), New Public Management: Current trends and future prospects). Routldge. Taylor and Francis Group.
Schneider C E, Russell C J, Beatty W and Baird L S, (2003).The training and development USA: HRD Press.
Schreier, Fred and M Caparini (2000). Privatising security: Law, practice and governance of Private Military and Security Companies”, Geneva Center for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF) Occasional Paper No.6.
Schwarts, M., Elsea, J K and Nakamura, K H (2008). Private security contractors in Iraq: Background, legal status, and other issues. Congressional Research Service Report for Congress.
Scott S. Goddard (2001). ‘The Private Military Company: A legitimate international entity within modern conflict’ M.A. thesis, Faculty of the U. S. Army Command and General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, USA, p.8.
Singer, P W (2004). ‘Corporate warriors: The rise of the Privatized Military Industry and its ramifications for International Security’, International Security, Cornell University Press: Ithaca, N.Y, 2004.
Spearin, C. (2001). Private security companies and humanitarians: A corporate solution to securing humanitarian spaces? International Peacekeeping, 8 (1), 20-43.
Spicer T (1998). Founder of Sandline Company, quoted in Andrew Gilligan, Inside Lt. Col. Spicer’s New Model Army, Sunday Telegraph.
Stephan W G, and Renfro C L (2002). The role of threat in intergroup relations. In D M Mackie and E R Smith (Eds.), from prejudice to intergroup emotions: Differentiated reactions to social groups. New York, NY: Psychology Press.
Tamika Kampini, (2018). Impact of Organization Structure on Employee Performance, Munich, GRIN Verlag.
Tornow W and Wiley J, (2004). Service quality and management practices: a look at employee attitude, customer satisfaction, and bottom-line consequence. People and Strategy, 14(2), 105-107.
Wagner U et all (2008). Improving intergroup relations building on the legacy of Thomas F. Pettigrew. USA: Blackwell Pub.
Waltz K, (1986). ‘Reflections on theory of International politics: a response to my critics, in Waltz, Realism and International Politics.
Weber, M., ed. T. Parsons (1964). The Theory of social and economic organization, Free Press: New York.
Yamoah, E. E., & Maiyo, P. (2013). Capacity building and employee performance, Canadian Social Science, 9 (3), 42-45. ISSN 1712-8056.
Zaribaf M and Bayrami H, (2010). An effective factors pattern affecting implementation of strategic plans. Academic and Business Research Institute.
Antunes S and I Camisão (2018). Introducing realism in International Relations theory, E-international relations’ student website.
Kendall R (1998). Anxiety, fear contribute to prejudice, say NMSU professors. Retrieved from http://www.nmsu.edu/~ucomm/Releases/1998/Nov98/stephan2.html accessed on 18 December 2018.
Sinclair C, (2017). "The Pros and cons that Private Security Management brings to businesses bizfluent.com,https://bizfluent.com/info-839618-pros-security-management-brings-businesses.html, accessed on 21 May 19.