SUSTAINABLE ENTREPRENEURIAL SKILL TRAINING AMONG STUDENT-TEACHERS IN BAGABAGA COLLEGE OF EDUCATION FOR A STAY BEYOND THE CRISIS
Purpose of the Study: The study intended to investigate the challenges faced by Visual Arts student-teachers on their survival in the midst of the Covid-19 crisis. More especially, the study delved into the challenges student-teachers face at home during vacations so as to find possible interventions that will enable them stay beyond the crisis.
Statement of the Problem: The living conditions in Ghana prior to the advent of the Corona pandemic had been issues of poverty, poor sanitation, diseases among others. This affected all calibre of people including students in tertiary institutions such as Colleges of Education. Unfortunately, the situation got worsen upon the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic which have exposed the true nature of training given to Visual Arts student-teachers.
Research Methodology: The study adopted the mixed method approach on Action Research methodology and made use of survey questionnaires and observations in soliciting the views of student-teachers on their living conditions at home, in the current era of the Corona pandemic. The population of 36 Level 400 students-teachers offering Visual Arts Specialism were equally used as the sample because all the 36 student-teachers underwent the entrepreneurial skill training.
Results: One of the major findings indicates that the student-teachers roam aimlessly around town during vacations, at the expense of the Covid-19 restrictions on movement, as they do not have any private jobs to do at home. This notwithstanding, it was found out that the student-teachers missed a lot of their zoom classes with their tutors as they often forgot of zoom schedules during their visits paid to social centers to watch premier league matches and other social and political events.
Conclusions: Majority of Visual Arts student-teachers do not do any job at home during vacations. Student-teachers lack the requisite practical skills, as a result, they stay idle at home paving way for some student-teachers’ indulgence in social vices such as gambling.
Recommendations: This brought about the prudent recommendation to train the student-teachers, as part of the pre-planned co-curricular activities which equipped them with some practical skills in dyeing, weaving and stitching.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial skills, student-teachers, crisis, batik, tie-dye, weaving, printing.
Abdullah, S. B. (2020). Entrepreneurship education in technical vocational education and training (TVET) and models of implementation. Ministry of Higher Education.
ADEA, AU/CIEFFA & APHRC (2021). The well-being of school children in Africa during the Covid-19 pandemic. ADEA, AU/CIEFFA, APHRC.
Aidoo-Buameh, J. & Ayagre, P. (2013). The effects of entry grades on academic performance of university accounting students: A case of undergraduates of Central University College. Research Journal of Finance and Accounting, 4(7), 198-207.
Aidoo. J. B. K. (2018). Challenges facing Visual Arts program in Senior High Schools in Ghana. International Journal of Humanities, Social Sciences and Education, 5, 136-142. http://dx.doi.or/10.20431/2349.0381.0503014
Anaba, D. (2020, June 10,). COVID-19: UCC SRC directs students to stop registration for online. City Newsroom https://citinewsroom.com/2020/04/covid-19-ucc-src-directs-student-stop-registration-for-online-studies/
Anamuah-Mensah, J. (2014, December 30). Vocational/technical education for accelerated wealth creation: Critical issues facing the nation [Paper presentation]. Winneaba at the 56th Annual New Year School, Winneba-Ghana. https://www.artwatchghana.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/NEW-YEAR-SCHOOL-LECTURE.pdf
Annika, A. (n.d). Seven challenges for e-learning in developing countries case study eBIT, Sari Lanka. Orebro University-Sweden.
Asante, E. A. (2009). A study of selected indigenous Ghanaian women in some indigenous Visual Arts (Doctoral dissertation, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi-Ghana). KNUST Space.
Asante, L. A. & Mills, R. O. (2020). Exploring the socio-economic impact of COVID-19 pandemic in marketplaces in urban Ghana. Africa Spectrum, 55, DOI: 10. 1177/ 0002 0397 20943612.
Bagabaga College of Education (2021, June 5). Academic Board Meeting, Departmental File. Department of Research and Publications, BACE.
Boldureanu, G., Ionescu, A. M., Ana-Maria, Bedrule-Grigoruta., M. V. & Boldureanu, D. (2020). Entrepreneurship education through successful entrepreneurial models in higher education institutions. Sustainability, 12, 2-33. doi:10.3390/su12031267.
Ducan, H., Halton, J. & Siladi, S. (2016). Study on the social value of youth organisations. European Youth Forum. https://www.youthforum.org/sites/default/files/publication-pdfs/YFJ_StudyOnTheSocialValueOfYouthOrganisations_1P1.pdf
Dome, M. & Armah-Attoh, D. (2020, July 20). Ghana’s e-learning program during pandemic presents access challenges to students.
Donagay, A. & Ball, A. P (2010). The measurements of students’ achievement in teaching primary school fifth year mathematics classes. Eğitim Danışmanlığı ve Araştırmaları İletişim Hizmetleri Tic. Ltd. Şti. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ882727.pdf
Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (2021). The social challenge in times of COVID-19: COVID-19 Response-United Nations. https://repositorio.cepal.org/bitstream/handle/11362/45544/1/S2000324_en.pdf
EdTech (2020). The effects of Covid-19 on education in Africa and its implications for the use of technology. e-learning Africa. DOI:10.5281/zenodo.4018774.
Ekwueme, C. O., Ekoni, E. E. & Ezenwa-Nebife, D. C. (2015). The impact of hands-on-approach on student academic performance in Basic Science and Mathematics. Higher Education Studies, 5(6), 47-51. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1086006.pdf
ESCAP (2021). Beyond the pandemic. Building back better from crisis in Asia and the Pacific. United Nations.
Ferri, F., Grifoni, P. & Guzzo, T. (2020). Online learning and emergency remote teaching: Opportunities and challenges in emergency situation. Societies, 8, 1-18. doi:10.3390/soc10040086.
Fredua-Kwarteng, E. (n.d). Enhancing secondary education in Ghana: The case of entrepreneurship. OISE University of Toronto. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED493192.pdf
Fusheini, M. Z. & Musah, B. (2017). Materials and methods for producing basic instructional support resources for teaching Creative Arts in Zohe Evangelical Presbyterian Primary School, Yendi-Ghana. Journal of Education and Practice, 8(34), 83-96. https://www.iiste./Journals/index.php/JEP/article/view/40400.
Gast, J., Gundolf, K., & Cesinger, B. (2017). Doing business in a green way: A systemic review of the ecological sustainability entrepreneurship literature and future research directions. Journal of Cleaner Production, 147, 44–56.
Ghana Health Service (2021). Situation update, Covid-19 outbreak in Ghana as at 05 January, 2021. https://www.ghanahealthservice.org/covid19/archive.php
Hall, J. K, Daneke, G. A., & Lenox, M. J. (2010). Sustainable development and entrepreneurship: Past contributions and future directions. Journal of Business Venturing, 25(2010), 439-448.
Ivers, I. E. & Nelton, W. N. (2014). Effects of hands-on learning on short-term retention in third-grade students. Hanover College. https://psych.hanover.edu/research/thesis11/papers/ivers-helton-final-draft.pdf
Jayeeta, B. (2015). Constructivist approach to learning: An active approach of teaching and learning. International Research Journal of Interdisciplinary and Multidisciplinary Studies, 1(VI), 65-74. http://oaji.net/articles/2015/1707-1438677336.pdf
Kummitha, H. R. & Kummitha, R. R. (2020). Sustainable entrepreneurship training: A study of motivational factors. The International Journal of Management Education, 19, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijme.2020.100449.
Luiza, M. (2019). The importance of the portfolio on students’ achievement. European Journal of Education, 2(1), 76-79. https://journals.euser.org/files/articles/ejed_v2_i1_19/Myrtaj.pdf
Lydia, M. (2020). The importance of hands-on learning on child’s education. The Friends' Central School Blog. https://blog.friendscentral.org/benefits-of-hands-on-learning
Lynn, E. (2020). School closures and teenage pregnancy. Bull World Health Organ, 99, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.21.020121.
Mack, A. J. White, D. & Senghor, O. (2019). An insight into entrepreneurship education practices in technical and vocational education and training institutions. Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, 9, https://doi.org/10.1186/s40497-019-0169-z
Mathew, L. (2019, December 13). Importance of hands-on learning in early education. The Advocate. https://www.theedadvocate.org/importance-of-hands-on-learning-in-early-education/
Maigida, J. F. & Saba, T. M. (2013). Entrepreneurial skills in Technical Vocational Education and Training as a strategic approach for achieving youth empowerment in Nigeria. International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 3(5), 303-310. http://www.ijhssnet.com/journals/Vol_3_No_5_March_2013/33.pdf
Musharrat, T. (2020). Teachers’ perception about use and challenges of hands-on activities in secondary science classroom. European Journal of Education Studies, 7, DOI: 1046827/ejes.v7i123384.
Nantwi, W. K. & Boateng, B. (2020). Cobid-19 and education in Ghana. A tale of chaos and calm. African Journal of Emerging Issues, 2(5), 41-45. https://ajoeijournals.org/sys/index.php/ajoei/article/view/108/122
National Council for Curriculum and Assessment (2020). Creative Arts and Design common core curriculum program (Basic 7-10). Ministry of Education.
National Council for Curriculum and Assessment (2019). Teacher resource pack. Ministry of Education.
Nina, H., Grube, D. & Susanne, B. (2009). Hands-on activities and their influence on students’ interest. Res Sci Educ, 40, DOI 10.1007/s11165-009-9142-0.
T-TEL (2-017). National teacher education curriculum framework. Ministry of Education.
Okolie, U. C., Ogbaekirigwe, C. (2014). Entrepreneurship development through vocational education training: Issues and roles in skills acquisition and manpower development in a developing economy. Journal of Educational Policy and Entrepreneurial Research, 1(2), 151-157. https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/234698126.pdf
Opoku-Asare, N. A., Tachie-Mensah, A. & Harry, B. E. (2015). Perceptions, attitudes and institutional factors that influence academic performance of Visual Arts students in Ghanaian Senior High Schools. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(21), 39-50. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1079077.pdf
Owusu-Fordjour, C., Koomson, C. K. & Hanson, D. (2020). The impact of Covid-19 on learning-the perspective of the Ghanaian student. European Journal of Education Studies, 7(3), 88-101. https://oapub.org/edu/index.php/ejes/article/view/3000/5638
Rivera, R. & Santos, D. (2016). Civic and political participation of children: A lifestyle analysis for positive youth development programs. Children & Society Volume, 30, DOI:10.1111/chso.12118.
Schneider, K. D. (2016). Hands-on learning. Some history and some principles. TECFA, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences. http://tecfa.unige.ch/tecfa/talks/schneide/odd-2016/Hands-on%20learning.pdf
Shellenbarger, S. (2006, September 16). New directions: Fewer parents encourage kids to follow in their career footsteps. The Wall Street Journal, Sept 2013. https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB115880258945769633
Shepherd, D. & Patzel, H. (2011). The new field of sustainable entrepreneurship: studying entrepreneurial action linking “what is to be sustained” with “what is to be developed” . Theory and Practice, 35. https://www.effectuation.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Shepherd_et_al-2011-Entrepreneurship_Theory_and_Practice-1.pdf
T-TEL (2020). Quarterly t-tel progress summary. https://ar-ar.facebook.com/ttelghana/posts/report-release-our-quarterly-and-annual-progress-reports-are-available-on-our-we/3252729151413739/
UNESCO-UNEVOC (2020). Entrepreneurial learning for TVET institutions. A practical guide. UNESCO. https://unevoc.unesco.org/up/entrepreneurial_learning_guide.pdf
UNICEF (2020, April 21). Startling disparities in digital learning emerge as COVID-19 spreads. UN News. https://news.un.org/en/story/2020/04/1062232
United Nations Ghana (2020). Covid-19: Socio-economic impact in Ghana. Impact on Ghana’s education. https://www.unicef.org/ghana/reports/covid-19-socio-economic-impact-ghana.
University of Winneba (2018). Four-year bachelor of education degree. University of Education.
World Vision (2020). COVID-19 aftershocks: Access denied. Teenage pregnancy threatens to block a million girls across Sub-Saharan Africa from returning to school. World Vision International. https://www.wvi.org/stories/ghana/teenage-pregnancy-during-covid-19-lockdowns-may-keep-1-million-girls-out-school
Zlata, T. (2015). An interactive approach to learning and teaching in visual arts education. C.E.P.S Journals, 5(3), 73-93. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1128840.pdf