INFLUENCE OF MODE OF PAYMENT ON SOCIAL PROTECTION OF ELDERLY PERSONS IN TURKANA COUNTY, KENYA
Purpose of the study: To assess the influence of mode of payment on social protection of elderly persons in Turkana County.
Methodology used: Descriptive survey research design was used. The target population were 3243 respondents, comprising of 243 employees of Cash Transfer Program and 3000 elderly persons aged 65 years and above. The sample size comprised of 27 employees and 329 elderly persons. Purposive, Stratified and simple random sampling was used to select respondents. Data collection instruments was questionnaire. Data was analyzed using inferential statistics such as linear regression analysis.
Findings of the study: The study findings showed that there was a positive significant relationship mode of payment (β1=0.741) and social protection of elderly persons in Turkana County.
Conclusion: Mode of payment had a significant relationship with social protection of elderly persons in Turkana County.
Recommendations: The national and county governments should look for ways of removing the hidden costs incurred by the elderly persons in obtaining the money. The cash transfer should be remitted through mobile phones to reduce the transport cost the elderly spend to access the paying points or banks. The national government should ensure there is internet connectivity that enhance the use of digital channels such as mobile money and e-wallets cash transfer.
Keywords: Mode of Payment, Social Protection, Elderly Persons, Turkana, County
Admassu, L.K. (2019). Urban productive safety net project (UPSNP): Cash payment system. Report on the payment modalities used for the UPSNP programme
Ahmed, R. (2018). Inter-agency cash working group South Sudan annual report. Inter-Agency Cash Working Group South Sudan.
Putman, R. J. (1995). Ethical considerations and animal welfare in ecological field studies. Biodiversity & Conservation, 4, 903-915. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00056197
O’donnell, G., Schmitter, P. C., & Whitehead, L. (2013). Transitions from authoritarian rule: Tentative conclusions about uncertain democracies. JHU Press.
Angeles, G., Chakrabarti, A., Handa, S., Otchere, F. & Spektor, G. (2018). Zimbabwe’s Harmonised Social Cash Transfer Programme: endline impact evaluation report. Chapel Hill: Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina.
Arruda, P.L. (2018b). Mozambique’s social protection system: an overview of the Basic Social Subsidy Programme (PSSB), the Direct Social Action Programme (PASD), the Productive Social Action Programme (PASP) and the Social Assistance Services (PAUS). Brasilia: International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth
Croucher, M., Karanja, V., Orina, R., Dokata, A., Wako, R., & Dima, J. (2016). Re-building Livelihoods: Cash-Transfer for Restocking Program, Kenya. Save the Children Canada.
Cull, R., Ehrbeck, T. & Holle, N. (2014). Financial inclusion and development: recent impact evidence. CGAP Focus Note No. 92. Washington, D.C.: Consultative Group to Assist the Poor. Retrieved from https://www.cgap.org/ sites/default/files/ researches/documents/FocusNote-Financial-Inclusion-and-Development-April-2014.pdf [13.05.2018].
Davis, B., Winters, S. H. & Handa, N. (2017). From Evidence to Action: The Story of Cash Transfers and Impact Evaluation in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Journal of Development Studies, 52(12), 1831–1832. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220388.2016.1222679
del Ninno, C., Subbarao, K., Kjellgren, A. & Quintana, R. (2013). Improving payment mechanisms in cash-based safety net programmes. Social Protection & Labour Discussion Paper No. 1305. Washington, DC: The World Bank.
Demirgüç-Kunt, A., Klapper, L., Singer, D. & van Oudheusden, P. (2015). The Global Findex Database 2014: measuring financial inclusion around the world. Policy Research Working Papers. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank Group. https://doi.org/10.1596/1813-9450-7255
Devereux, S., Roelen, K., Béné, C., Chopra, D., Leavy, J., & McGregor, J. A. (2013). Evaluating outside the box: an alternative framework for analysing social protection programmes. IDS Working Papers, 2013(431), 1-26. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2040-0209.2013.00431.x
DfID (Department for International Development) (2009). Designing and implementing financially inclusive payment arrangements for social transfer programmes. London: Department for International Development.
Fisher, E., Attah, R., Barca, V., O’Brien, C., Brook, S., Holland, J. & Pozarny, P. (2017). The Livelihood Impacts of Cash Transfers in Sub-Saharan Africa: Beneficiary Perspectives from Six Countries. World Development, 99, 299–319. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.05.020
GOK (2016). Turkana county Steering Group Report, Lodwar, Kenya
GSMA (GSM Association) (2020). State of the industry report on mobile money 2019. London: GSM Association.
Guven, M.U. & Leite, P. (2016). Benefits and costs of social pensions in sub-Saharan Africa. Social Protection & Labour Discussion Paper No. 1607. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank Group. https://doi.org/10.1596/24945
Haushofer, J., Ringdal, C., Shapiro, J., & Wang, X. Y. (2019). Income changes and intimate partner violence: Evidence from unconditional cash transfers in Kenya. https://doi.org/10.3386/w25627
Hemsteede, R. (2018). From manual to digital: first hand insight into Malawi’s social cash transfer. Retrieved from https:// social protection.org/discover/blog/manual-digital-first-hand-insight-malawi%E2%80%99s-social-cash-transfer
Hirvonen, K. & Hoddinott, J. (2020). Beneficiary views on cash and in-kind payments: evidence from Ethiopia’s Productive Safety Net Programme. The World Bank Economic Review, 0(0), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1596/1813-9450-9125
ILO (International Labour Organization) (2014). Namibia social protection floor assessment report. Geneva: International Labour Office.
ILO. (2017). World Social Protection Report 2017 -19: Universal social protection to achieve Sustainable Development Goals. World Social Protection Report 2017-19: Geneva, SW: International Labor Organization.
ISPA (Inter Agency Social Protection Assessments) (2016b). Social protection payments in the Productive Social Safety Net Program in Tanzania. Inter-Agency Social Protection Assessments.
Klapper, L., Ansar, S., Hess, J. & Singer, D. (2019). Sub-Saharan Africa Series: Mobile Money and Digital Financial Inclusion. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank Group.
Mbugua, L., and Gachugua, H. (2015) Challenges in management of older persons’ cash transfers programme. The case study of ministry of Labour, social security and Services, the Strategic Journal of Business and Change Management Vol.2(3) pp35-51, Jan 2015 retrieved on 20th October, 2019 from www.strategicjournal.com. https://doi.org/10.61426/sjbcm.v2i1.71
Merttens, F., Sindou, E., Lipcan, A., Pellerano, L., Binci, M., Ssewanyana, S., Neema, S., Attah, R., Otulana, S., Hearle, C. & Garbarino, C. (2016). Evaluation of the Uganda Social Assistance Grants for Empowerment (SAGE) Programme – Impact after two years of programme operations 2012-2014. Final report. Oxford: Oxford Policy Management.
Mohamud, O. M., & Minja, D. (2020). Citizen participation and health sector policy development in Garissa County, Kenya. The International Journal of Business & Management, 8(3). https://doi.org/10.24940/theijbm/2020/v8/i3/bm2003-022
Momanyi, B. (2012). Is Gender Ministry Robbing the Elderly? Retrieved March 21, 2013, From Capital News: http://www.capitalfm.co.ke/news/2012/05/is-murugis-ministry-robbing-the elderly
Mwiti, C. & Kukrety, N. (2014). Piloting Methodologies for Delivery of Social Protection Programmes in Kenya: Early Documentation of Oxfam’s Experience in the Hunger Safety Net Program, Oxfam GB, Kenya, August.
National Social Protection Secretariat. (2016). Do universal noncontributory old-age pensions make sense for rural areas in low-income countries? International Social Security Review, 59(4), 47-65. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-246X.2006.00253.x
New America Foundation (2011). Savings-linked conditional cash transfers: lessons, challenges & directions. Report on the Global Colloquium on Savings-Linked Condition Cash Transfers, New York,
November 2010. Retrieved from https://www. findevgateway.org/ sites/default/ files/publications/files/mfg-en-paper-savings-linked-conditional-cash-transfers-lessons-challenges-directions-may-2011.pdf
Oberländer, L. & Brossmann, M. (2014). Electronic Delivery Methods of Social Cash Transfers. Discussion Papers on Social Protection. Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit
(GIZ) GmbH. Parliament of Uganda (2018). Report of the Committee on Gender, Labour and Social Development on the Social Assistance Grant for Empowerment (SAGE) scheme. Kampala: Parliament of the Republic of Uganda.
Pearson, R., & Alviar, C. (2014). The Government of Kenya’s Cash Transfer Program for Vulnerable Children: Political Choice, Policy Choice, Capacity to Implement and Targeting, From Conception to Adolescence. pp. 2002-2009
Pickens, M., Porteous, D. & Rotman, S. (2009). Banking the poor via G2P payments. CGAP Focus Note No. 58. Washington, D.C.: Consultative Group to Assist the Poor.
Postbank (2020). SASSA Debit Card. Retrieved from https://www. postbank.co.za/Products/Transactional/sassa.html
Putnam, R. (1993). The prosperous community: Social capital and public life. The american prospect, 13(Spring), Vol. 4. Available online: http://www. prospect. org/print/vol/13 (accessed 7 April 2003).
Putnam, Robert D. (2005). “Diversity, Equality and Community.” Presented at the Social Capital & Networks Conference. Columbus, OH.
Ressler, K. M. (2008). The path to leadership for Native American women at North Dakota tribal colleges. Capella University.
Social protection and redistribution. (2020). Inequality, Social Protection and Social Justice, 126- 144. https://doi.org/10.4337/9781789905588.00016
Tirivayi, N., Matondi, P., Tomini, S.M., Tesfaye, W.M., Chikulo, S. & van den Berg Morelli, C. (2016). Humanitarian assistance through mobile cash transfers: emergency cash-first response to food security in drought-affected communities in southern Zimbabwe through a mobile cash transfer project. Maastricht: United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology.
UNCDF (United Nations Capital Development Fund) (2017a). Government of Malawi payments road map: a five-year plan to digitize government payments in Malawi. New York: United Nations Capital Development fund.
UNCDF (United Nations Capital Development Fund) (2017b). Government payments flow diagnostic - Zambia. New York: United Nations Capital Development Fund.
Vodafone (2020). M-Pesa. Retrieved from https://www. vodafone.com/what-we-do/services/m-pesa [08.05.2020].
World Bank (2016b). IDA project appraisal document on a proposed credit to the Kingdom of Lesotho for a social assistance project. Report No: PAD1377. Washington, DC: The World Bank Group.
World Bank (2018b). The little data book on financial inclusion 2018. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank Group.
World Bank (2018c). Project appraisal document on a proposed grant to the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe for the Social Protection and Skills Development Project. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank Group.