EVALUATING THE INTEGRATION OF AN INTERNATIONAL CURRICULUM AND THE 8-4-4 CURRICULUM IN KENYA: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES
Background: The creators of the competency based curriculum envision that at the end of the learning period, the learners should have achieved communication and collaboration, critical thinking and problem solving, imagination and creativity, citizenship, learning to learn, self-efficacy and digital literacy so that at the end they should have been molded with the following values love, responsibility, respect, unity, peace, patriotism and integrity. There exist two curricula in the Kenyan education system: the international curriculum and the 8-4-4 curriculum. Although these two curricula have a similar bare minimum in their content and approach, the 8-4-4 curriculum is perceived to be least favorable in equipping learners with hands-on skills attitudes and competence to adapt to the ever changing global dynamics.
Study Objective: The aim of this paper was to evaluate the opportunities and challenges of embracing the attributes of an international curriculum in the 8-4-4 system. The paper posits that with the world becoming a global village, global awareness should form the crust of any meaningful education. On the contrary, over reliance on an international curriculum will not only expose learners to an environment that is not immediate but also equip them with skills and knowledge that does not match the immediate market dynamics.
Conclusion: In conclusion, this paper offers an integrated, binary approach towards establishing a curriculum that is both international in nature without clear cut biases against the local curriculum.
Key Words: Hands-on skills, global awareness, curriculum, opportunities, and challenges
Abagi, O. (1997). Education reform in Kenya for the next decade: Implementing Adult Learning: A Design for Action. London, Pergamon Press, Africa press
Akinpelu, J.A. (1981). An introduction to philosophy of education.
Alexander, R (2008). Education for All, the Quality Imperative and the Problem of Pedagogy. London: Department for International Development.
Altinyenken, H (2010) Curriculum change in Uganda: Teacher perspectives on the new thematic curriculum. International Journal of Educational Development 30 (2), 151–161.
Amutabi, M (2003) Political interference in the running of education in post-independence Kenya: A critical retrospection. International Journal of Educational Development 23(2), 127–144.
Amutabi, N. (2003). The 8-4-4 system of education. International Journal of Educational Analysis Research. Special Paper No. 3.
Bernstein, B (1971). On the classification and framing of educational knowledge. In: Young, M (ed.) Knowledge and Control. London: Collier-Macmillan, pp.47–69.
Bogonko, N (1992) A History of Modern Education in Kenya; 1895–1991. Nairobi: Evans Brothers Limited
Chisholm, L, & Leyendecker, R (2008) Curriculum reform in post-1990s sub-Saharan Africa. International Journal of Educational Development 28(2), 195–205
Desouza, H.S. (1987). Kenya education in its context, .New York: Development. 23 (3)
Eshiwani, G. (1992). Education in Kenya since independence. Nairobi: East African.
Garforth, F.W. (1979) John Stuart Mills ‘theory of education’. Oxford, Martin Robertson and company Ltd.
Glewwe, P, Kremer, & M, Moulin, S (2009). Many children left behind? Textbooks and test scores in Kenya. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 1(1): 112–135.
Karanja, S. (2008). Education for self-reliance, analytic perspective. Kenyatta University.
King, K. & McGrath, S. (2002). Globalization, enterprise and knowledge symposium. Oxford. 42, (2) March, 2019
Muya, W. (2000). Great expectations as new system seem likely. Daily Nation on web. Nairobi, Government Printers
Ngware, M, Oketch, M, & Mutisya, M (2014) Does teaching style explain differences in learner achievement in low and high performing schools in Kenya? International Journal of Educational Development 36: 3–12.
Njoroge, R.J. & Bennaars, G.A. (1986). Philosophy and education in Africa. Nairobi: Trans
Nyerere, J. K. (1978). ‘Adult Education and Development’. In: Hall, B.; Kidd, J.R. (eds.)
Nyerere, J.K. (1968).‘ Education for Self-Reliance’. Freedom and Socialism.
Owino, C. (1997). Vocational education in primary schools in Kenya and Tanzania: Oxford, Martin Robertson and company Ltd.
Oyebamiji, (2011). The Nigerian system of education and the need for Palmerstone North: Dunmore press.
Peters, R.S. (1967). The concept of education. London Rout ledge and Keegan Paul policies for adjustment and revitalization. Nairobi: Institute for Policy
Pritchett, L, & Beatty, A (2015). Slow down, you’re going too fast: Matching curricula to student skill levels. International Journal for Educational Development 40: 276–288
Republic of Kenya (1989). Children and Women in Kenya: A Situation Analysis. Nairobi: Government of Kenya/UNICEF
Republic of Kenya, Ministry of education. (1984). 8-4-4 System of education. Nairobi, Kenya
Republic of Kenya, Ministry of education. (1999). totally integrated quality education Retrieved from: http://www.nationaudio.com/News/DailyNation/2000
Schweisfurth, M. (2013). Learner-Centred Education in International Perspective: Whose Pedagogy for Whose Development? Education, Poverty and International Development series. London: Routledge
Sifuna, D (2007). The challenge of increasing access and improving quality: An analysis of universal primary education interventions in Kenya and Tanzania since the 1970s. International Review of Education 53(5–6), 687–699.
UNESCO (2004) Education for all: The quality imperative. EFA Global Monitoring Report 2005. Paris: UNESCO
UNESCO (2004). Education for all: The quality imperative. EFA Global Monitoring Report 2005. Paris: UNESCO
UNESCO (2014) Teaching and learning: Achieving quality for all. EFA Global Monitoring Report 2013/2014. Paris: UNESCO
UNICEF, (1999). State of the World’s Children Report, New York: UNICEF University (Faculty of education). MA dissertation (unpublished), Vantage Press, 2.
Westbrook, J, Durrani, N, & Brown, R. (2013) Pedagogy, curriculum, teaching practices and teacher education in developing countries. Final report. Education Rigorous Literature Review. Department for International Development
Woolcock, P. (1989). Forms of knowledge, teacher education and manipulation of beliefs. The Australian Journal of Teacher Education.14 (3):May1989.
Yin, R. K. (2013) Case Study Research: Design and Methods. Sage publications.