• Dr. FCPA John Odhiambo Mudany, PhD United States International University-Africa, Member of Council, Management University of Africa
  • Dr. Mildred Anyango Mudany, PhD Chairperson, Kisii University Council
  • Prof. Martin Ogutu, PhD University of Nairobi


Background: Climate Change is defined as a change in the state of average weather patterns attributed to both natural and human induced factors and which in addition to variability persists over long periods. It is a global problem that demands a global solution. The Paris Agreement, which aims to enhance the global response to the threat of climate change by keeping the global temperature rise this century well below 2°C over pre-industrial levels, now governs the worldwide response to climate change. Kenya’s National commitment includes contribution for adaptation and mitigation, and outlines the nation's initiatives to help achieve the global objective outlined in the Paris Agreement.

Objectives: The objective of this paper was to identify climate change adaptation options for diverse pastoral groups in Kenya, with a particular focus on Kajiado County.

Methodology: Involved rigorous review of pertinent documents related to climate change and livelihood sustainability of vulnerable communities in Kajiado. These included documents on climate change conventions, national policies and strategies (including plans, programmes and legal documents), journal articles and published reports. The information drawn from these documents were critically skimmed, sorted and analyzed.

Results: The annual average range of precipitation received in Kajiado County is between 300 and 1300 mm with the lowlands receiving the lowest while elevated areas receive the highest precipitation. The temperature range varies between 20°C and 30°C throughout the year. Changes in climate significantly affect the pastoral production systems, with cattle being more affected compared to other species of livestock due to their feeding habit and being sensitive to heat stress.   Livestock sector especially within ASALs, has suffered from recurrent droughts with resultant loss of livestock body conditions, increase on livestock disease incidences and livestock deaths. In this review, at least 290,000 heads of cattle died in Kajiado County during the last drought season as at November 2022. Mechanisms have been established to comprehend and address the consequences of climate change. The government of Kenya has since developed various policy documents that are either directly or indirectly related to climate change, and there is strong backing from foreign partners. Since the residents of Kajiado County are not opposed to climate change, they have historically been able to adapt to it in a number of ways, such as migration, destocking, rain harvesting, and selling land to restock livestock fields or migrate. These adaptive mechanisms have the drawback of being more reactive than proactive.

Conclusion: This paper showed that the impact of climate change and its extremes is being felt by Maasai pastoralist living in Kajiado County of Kenya. The increase in drought occurrence has severe impact on pastoralist livelihood, food security, human and animal health, vegetation, and child education in the study area. The government is attempting to boost water capacity during dry years by sinking boreholes and water troughs in order to promote peaceful networks.

Key Words: Climate Change, Livelihood Sustainability, Vulnerability, Adaptation

Author Biographies

Dr. FCPA John Odhiambo Mudany, PhD, United States International University-Africa, Member of Council, Management University of Africa

United States International University-Africa, Member of Council, Management University of Africa

Dr. Mildred Anyango Mudany, PhD, Chairperson, Kisii University Council

Chairperson, Kisii University Council

Prof. Martin Ogutu, PhD, University of Nairobi

Professor, Strategic Management, Department of Business Administration, School of Business, University of Nairobi, Kenya


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How to Cite
Mudany, J. O., Mudany, M. A., & Ogutu, M. (2024). IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON LIVELIHOOD SUSTAINABILITY OF VULNERABLE PASTORAL COMMUNITIES IN KAJIADO, KENYA. African Journal of Emerging Issues, 6(1), 50 - 74. Retrieved from