• Patrick Tumusiime Tangaza University College, The Catholic University of Eastern Africa
  • Shem Mwalw’a The Catholic University of Eastern Africa
  • Kinikonda Okemasisi Tangaza University College


Purpose of the Study: This study sought to find out the influence of principals’ implementation strategies of Teacher Performance Appraisal and Development (TPAD) tool on the performance of teachers in public secondary schools in Kikuyu Constituency, Kiambu County. Teachers’ performance appraisal is one of the important processes in determining the performance of teachers in every country. In Kenya, Teachers Service Commission (TSC) introduced Teacher Performance Appraisal and Development (TPAD) tool in public schools to enable school principals to objectively evaluate teachers in their respective schools. Two research questions together with management by objectives theory guided the study.  

Statement of the Problem: In spite of the underpinning objective of the strategy in improving teachers’ performance, the implementation of TPAD has faced considerable resistance from teachers and their umbrella body, Kenya National Union of Teachers. 

Research Methodology: The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional survey design with a blend of qualitative and quantitative paradigm. The concurrent triangulation design was adopted for the study. The study targeted all public secondary schools, principals, teachers, TSC County Directors, and Quality Assurance and Standards Officers (QASOs). Both probability and non-probability sampling procedures were used to determine different samples for the study. Probability sampling, in particular simple random sampling was adopted to select 12 public secondary schools; proportionate sampling was used to select 190 teachers from the sampled schools. Non-probability sampling mainly purposive sampling was used to select 12 principals, One TSC County Director and One Quality Assurance and Standards Officer (QASO). Instrument reliability was tested using test-retest technique. Retest was done after a time lapse of two weeks. Scores from both testing periods were correlated using a Pearson Product Moment Formula to identify any variations that were present. Both qualitative and quantitative data analysis procedures were used to analyze data. The quantitative data was analyzed with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) and analysis largely involved inferential statistics (correlation and regression analyses) and descriptive statistics, precisely frequencies and percentages. Qualitative data derived from the interview guide and open ended items were thematically analyzed, carefully coded, and recorded into narrative and direct quotations to support the findings of the quantitative data that was collected using questionnaires. Quantitative data presentation was done using bar graphs, tables and pie charts.

Result: The study established that principals’ support towards teacher professional development and collaborative planning in principals’ implementation of TPAD positively and significantly influenced the performance of teachers in public secondary schools.

Conclusion: It was concluded that principals’ implementation strategies of TPAD were satisfactory variables in explaining the performance of teachers in public secondary schools.

Recommendation: The study recommended that further studies be conducted to evaluate the extent of the TPAD tool implementation in public secondary schools in other constituencies to generate findings with a larger picture of the TPAD tool implementation.

Keywords: Implementation, Appraisal, Teacher, Performance, Development, Collaborative Planning, Support, Principal.

Author Biographies

Patrick Tumusiime, Tangaza University College, The Catholic University of Eastern Africa

Masters’ Student

Shem Mwalw’a , The Catholic University of Eastern Africa

Senior Lecturer, Research Evaluation and Pedagogical Studies

Kinikonda Okemasisi, Tangaza University College

Lecturer and M.Ed. Program Leader, School of Education


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